Нашето звездно небе            

Бележки

Обекти включени в пътеводителя

Ярки звезди
деклинация δ2000 > -45°, звездна величина V <= 4.0m ;
432 звезди;
Кратни звезди
деклинация δ2000 > -45°, звездна величина Va <= 5.0-5.5m, разстояние Δ >=25";
Кратни звезди: 14 видими с просто око, 64 видими с бинокъл, 70 видими с телескоп;
Променливи звезди
деклинация δ2000 > -45°, звездна величина Vmax <= 5.0-5.5m, изменение ΔV >=0.5m;
Променливи звезди: 13 затъмнителни, 12 цефеиди, 15 дългопериодични, 24 полуправилни, 18 неправилни;
Звездни купове
деклинация δ2000 > -45°, звездна величина V < 9.0m;
Разсеяни звездни купове: 21 видими с просто око, 48 видими с бинокъл, 4 видими с телескоп;
Сферични звездни купове: 36 видими с бинокъл, 1 видим с телескоп;
Междузвездно вещество
деклинация δ2000 > -45°, звездна величина V < 9.0m;
Йонизирани мъглявини: 2 видими с просто око, 10 видими с бинокъл, 2 видима с телескоп;
Отражателни мъглявини: 1 видима просто око, 1 видима с бинокъл, 1 видима с телескоп;
Планетарни мъглявини: 3 видими с бинокъл и 11 видими с телескоп;
Останки от свръхнова: 2 видими с бинокъл и 1 видима с телескоп;
Галактики
деклинация δ2000 > -45°, звездна величина V < 9.0m;
Галактики: 1 видима с просто око, 20 видими с бинокъл, 39 видими с телескоп;
Звездни карти
звездна величина V <= 6.5m;

Съзвездия видими от България

_______________________________________________________________________
Име                                       Брой: Звезди   Звезди  Други
Българско Латинско Съкращение                   до 6.5V  в пътеводителя
_______________________________________________________________________
Андромеда Andromeda And                           150       9      5 *
Бик (Телец) Taurus Tau                            220      26      4
Близнаци Gemini Gem                               120      13      3
Везни Libra Lib                                    90       7      -
Водолей Aquarius Aqr                              170      10      5
Воловар Bootes Boo                                140      14      -
Вълк  Lupus Lup                                   120/70    8      1
Гарван Corvus Crv                                  30       5      -
Голяма мечка Ursa Major UMa                       210      22      7 *
Голямо куче Canus Major CMa                       150      16      4
Гущер Lacerta Lac                                  70       3      1
Гълъб Columba Col                                  70       6      1
Дева Virgo Vir                                    170      12      9
Делфин Delphinus Del                               40       4      -
Длето Caelum Cae                                   20/18    1      -
Дракон Draco Dra                                  220      19      1
Еднорог Monoceros Mon                             140       7      7
Еридан Eridanus Eri                               200/180  12      -
Жерав Grus Gru
Жираф Camelopardalis Cam                          160       4      2
Жребче (Малък кон) Equuleus Equ                    20       3      -
Заек Lepus Lep                                     70      11      1
Змиеносец Ophiuchus Oph                           170       7     10 *
Змия Serpens Ser                                  110      10      3
Касиопея Cassiopeia Cas                           160      14      9 *
Кит Cetus Cet                                     190      14      3
Козирог Capricornus Cap                            80       7      1
Колар Auriga Aur                                  160      11      4
Компас Pyxis Pyx                                   40       3      -
Корабни платна Vela Vel
Косите на Вероника Coma Berenices Com              70       5     13
Кърма Puppis Pup                                  240/200   5      8 *
Лебед Cygnus Cyg                                  270      22      8
Лира Lyra Lyr                                      70       8      2
Ловджийски кучета Canes Venatici CVn               60       4      9
Лъв Leo Leo                                       120      15      9
Малка лисица Vulpecula Vul                         70       2      3
Малка мечка Ursa Minor UMi                         40       3      -
Малко куче Canis Minor CMi                         50       3      -
Малък лъв Leo Minor LMi                            40       3      -
Микроскоп Microscopium Mic                         40       2      -
Овен Aries Ari                                     90       5      -
Орел Aquila Aql                                   130      13      2
Орион Orion Ori                                   200      24      6
Пегас Pegasus Peg                                 180      10      2
Персей Perseus Per                                160      14      7
Пещ Fornax For                                     60       1      1
Помпа Antlia Ant                                   40       2      -
Рак Cancer Cnc                                    100       7      2
Риби Pisces Psc                                   150       9      1
Рис Lynx Lyn                                      100       5      -
Северна корона - Corona Borealis - CrB             40       8      -
Секстант Sextans Sex                               40       1      1
Скорпион Scorpius Sco                             170      12     10 *
Скулптор Sculptor Scl                              50       1      3
Стрела Sagitta Sge                                 30       4      1
Стрелец Sagittarius Sgr                           200       7     17 *
Триъгълник Triangulum Tri                          30       5      1
Феникс Phoenix Phe
Херкулес Hercules Her                             240       6      3 *
Хидра Hydra Hya                                   240      17      4
Центавър Centaurus Cen                            280/130  11      1
Цефей Cepheus Cep                                 160      13      4
Часовник Horologium Hor
Чаша Crater Crt                                    30       3      -
Щит Scutum Sct                                     30       2      3
Ъгломер Norma Nor
Южна корона Corona Australis CrA                   40       3      1
Южна риба Piscis Austrinus PsA                     50       2      -
_______________________________________________________________________
* недовършена

Оптични инструменти.

_____________________________________________________________________________
*  Инструмент        Увеличение  Апертура  Максимална  Зрително  Разделителна
                                  входна    зв.вел.      поле     способност
_____________________________________________________________________________
О  Просто око            1x         6mm        6         120°        300"

б  Оперен бинокъл        3x        20mm        6          15°        100"
б  Обикновен бинокъл     6x        30mm        8           7°         50"
Б  Астро. бинокъл       12x        50mm       10           4°         25"

т  Малък телескоп       60x        75mm       11          50'          5"
Т  Телескоп             35x       150mm       13          80'          8"
Т  Телескоп            350x       150mm       13           8'          0.8"
_____________________________________________________________________________

Гръцка азбука.

α алфа       η ета         ν ни          τ тау
β бета       θ тета        ξ кси         υ ипсилон
γ гама       ι йота        ο омикрон     φ фи 
δ делта      κ капа        π пи          χ хи
ε епсилон    λ ламбда      ρ ро          ψ пси
ζ дзета      μ мю          σ сигма       ω омега

Спектрална класификация.

Температурни класове.

O
Сини звезди. Температура на повърхността 35 000К. Характерни са линиите на йонизирания хелий (He II); наблюдават се и линии на неколкократно йонизирани атоми като Si IV, O III, N III, C III и др.; в близките до клас B подкласове се наблюдават и линии на неутрален хелий (He I).
B
Синьо-бели звезди. Температура на повърхността 15 000К. Характерни са линии на He I; максимален интензитет тези линии имат при B2-B3; в подкласовете B0-B3 все още се наблюдават линии на He II; Водородните линии от Балмеровата серия са силни, като интензитета им се увеличава от B0 към B9.
A
Бели звезди. Температура на повърхността 9 000К. Линиите на водорода H от Балмеровата серия достигат максимален интензитет, линиите на He I изчезват, а се появяват линии на йонизирани метали; появяват се линиите H и K на Ca II.
F
Жълто-бели звезди. Температура на повърхността 7 000К. Характерни са линиите H и K на Ca II, чийто интензитет расте от F0 към F9; най-силните линии са на водорода, като отслабват от F0 към F9; доминират линиите на йонизирани метали метали; появяват се линии на неутрални метали, които се усилват към F9; линията g Ca I 422.7nm става интензивна след F5.
G
Жълти звезди. Температура на повърхността 5 500К. Характерни особености са тези на слънчевия спектър и звездите от този клас често се наричат звезди от типа на Слънцето; доминират линиите на неутрални и еднократно йонизирани метали. H и K линиите продължават да се усилват към G9; g-линията 422.7nm на Ca I увеличава интензитета си; линиите на водорода след G5 частично се маскират от метални линии; появяват се ивици на молекули, като например G-ивицата на CH с дължина 430nm.
K
Жълто-оранжеви звезди. Температура на повърхността 4 000К. Най-характерни са линиите H, K на Ca II и g на Ca I; линиите H и K достигат максимум около K2; линиите на йонизирани метали отслабват, доминират линиите на неутрални метали; още по-силни стават молекулните ивици и специално тази на TiO.
M
Червени звезди. Температура на повърхността 3 000К. Характерни са ивиците на титанов окисTiO, наблюдават се много линии на неутрални метали; линията g на Ca I продължава да увеличава интензитета си.
C, R, N
Много червени звезди. Температура на повърхността 3 000К. Отсъстват ивиците на TiO. Наблюдават се силни молекулни ивици на въглерода и съединенията му - C2, CH, CN и CO, поради което тези звезди се наричат въглеродни; линейният спектър е сходен с този на класовете K и M.
S
Червени звезди. Температура на повърхността 3 000К. Характерни са ивиците на циркониевия окис ZrO, каквито отсъстват в спектрите на звезди от други класове; наблюдават се силни линии на неутрални метали, включително на цирконий и технеций Zr, Tc.

Класове светимост.

0, Ia-, Ia+
хипергиганти
Ia, Iab, Ib
свръхгиганти
II
ярки гиганти
II-III, IIIa, IIIab, IIIb, III-IV
гиганти
IV
субгиганти
V
джуджета, главна последователност
VI
субджуджета

Особености.

-
променлив спектър от/до
+
комбиниран спектър
v
променлив спектър
e
спектър с емисионни линии
sh
спектър на обкръжението на звездата
p
спектър с особености
s
ясен (остър) профил на спектралната линия
n; nn
неясен (разлят) профил на спектралната линия; много неясен профил
CN
особеност в съдържанието на CN
w
слаба линия
m
линии на метали

Типове променливи звезди.

Използвана е информация от "General Catalog of Variable Stars (GCVS database, Version 2013 Apr.) Samus N.N., Goranskij V.P., Durlevich O.V., Kazarovets E V., Kireeva N.N., Pastukhova E.N., Zharova A.V. ".

1. eruptive (FU, GCAS, I, IA, IB, IN, INA, INB, INT, IT, IN(YY), IS, ISA,
           ISB, RCB, RS, SDOR, UV, UVN, WR),
2. pulsating (ACYG, BCEP, BCEPS, CEP, CEP(B), CW, CWA, CWB, DCEP, DCEPS,
           DSCT, DSCTC, GDOR, L, LB, LC, M, PVTEL, RPHS, RR, RR(B), RRAB,
           RRC, RV, RVA, RVB, SR, SRA, SRB, SRC, SRD, SXPHE, ZZ, ZZA, ZZB),
3. rotating (ACV, ACVO, BY, ELL, FKCOM, PSR, SXARI),
4. cataclysmic (explosive and novalike) variables (N, NA, NB, NC, NL, NR,
           SN, SNI, SNII, UG, UGSS, UGSU, UGZ, ZAND),
5. eclipsing binary systems (E, EA, EB, EW, GS, PN, RS, WD, WR, AR, D, DM,
           DS, DW, K, KE, KW, SD),
6. intense variable X-ray sources (X, XB, XF, XI, XJ, XND, XNG, XP, XPR,
            XPRM, XM),
7. other symbols (BLLAC, CST, GAL, L:, QSO, S, *, +, :).
8. the new variability types (ZZO, AM, R, BE, LBV, BLBOO, EP, SRS, LPB)


                       1. Eruptive Variable Stars

       Eruptive variables are stars varying in brightness because of
       violent processes and flares occurring in their chromospheres
       and coronae. The light changes are usually accompanied by shell
       events or mass outflow in the form of stellar winds of variable
       intensity and/or by interaction with the surrounding interstellar
       medium. This class includes the following types:
       
GCAS   Eruptive irregular variables of the Gamma Cas type. These
       are rapidly rotating B III-IVe stars with mass outflow from their
       equatorial zones. The formation of equatorial rings or disks is
       often accompanied by temporary fading. Light amplitudes may reach
       1.5 mag in V.
       
RCB    Variables of the R Coronae Borealis type. These are hydrogen-poor,
       carbon- and helium-rich, high-luminosity stars belonging to the
       spectral types Bpe-R, which are simultaneously eruptive and
       pulsating variables. They show slow nonperiodic fadings by 1-9
       mag in V lasting from a month or more to several hundred days.
       These changes are superposed on cyclic pulsations with amplitudes
       up to several tenths of a magnitude and periods in the range
       30-100 days.

RS     Eruptive variables of the RS Canum Venaticorum type. This type is
       ascribed to close binary systems with spectra showing Ca II H and
       K in emission, their components having enhanced chromospheric
       activity that causes quasi-periodic light variability. The period
       of variation is close to the orbital one, and the variability
       amplitude is usually as great as 0.2 mag in V (UX Ari). They are
       X-ray sources and rotating variables. RS CVn itself is also an
       eclipsing system (see below).

SDOR   Variables of the S Doradus type. These are eruptive,
       high-luminosity Bpec-Fpec stars showing irregular (sometimes
       cyclic) light changes with amplitudes in the range 1-7 mag in V.
       They belong to the brightest blue stars of their parent galaxies.
       As a rule, these stars are connected with diffuse nebulae and
       surrounded by expanding envelopes (P Cyg, Eta Car).

                          2. Pulsating Variable Stars

       Pulsating variables are stars showing periodic expansion and
       contraction of their surface layers. The pulsations may be radial
       or nonradial. A radially pulsating star remains spherical in
       shape, while in the case of nonradial pulsations the star's shape
       periodically deviates from a sphere, and even neighboring zones of
       its surface may have opposite pulsation phases.

       Depending on the period value, on the mass and evolutionary status
       of the star, and on the scale of pulsational phenomena, the
       following types of pulsating variables may be distinguished:

DCEP   These are the classical cepheids, or Delta Cep-type variables. Com-
       paratively young objects that have left the main sequence and
       evolved into the instability strip of the Hertzsprung-Russell
       (H-R) diagram, they obey the well-known Cepheid period-luminosity
       relation and belong to the young disk population. DCEP stars are
       present in open clusters. They display a certain relation between
       the shapes of their light curves and their periods.

DCEPS  These are Delta Cep variables having light amplitudes <0.5 mag in
       V (<0.7 mag in B) and almost symmetrical light curves (M-m
       approx. 0.4 - 0.5 periods); as a rule, their periods do not exceed
       7 days. They are probably first-overtone pulsators and/or are in
       the first transition across the instability strip after leaving
       the main sequence (SU Cas).       
       
LB     Slow irregular variables of late spectral types (K, M, C, S); as a
       rule, they are giants (CO Cyg). This type is also ascribed, in
       the GCVS, to slow red irregular variables in the case of unknown
       spectral types and luminosities.
       
LC     Irregular variable supergiants of late spectral types having amplitudes
       of about 1 mag in V (TZ Cas).
       
M      Mira (Omicron) Ceti-type variables. These are long-period variable
       giants with characteristic late-type emission spectra (Me, Ce, Se) and
       light amplitudes from 2.5 to 11 mag in V. Their periodicity is
       well pronounced, and the periods lie in the range between 80 and
       1000 days. Infrared amplitudes are usually less than in the
       visible and may be <2.5 mag. For example, in the K band they
       usually do not exceed 0.9 mag. If the amplitudes exceed 1 - 1.5
       mag , but it is not certain that the true light amplitude exceeds 2.5
       mag, the symbol "M" is followed by a colon, or the star is
       attributed to the semiregular class with a colon following the
       symbol for that type (SR).              

RVA    RV Tauri variables that do not vary in mean magnitude (AC Her);

RVB    RV Tauri variables that periodically (with periods from 600 to
       1500 days and amplitudes up to 2 mag in V) vary in mean
       magnitude (DF Cyg, RV Tau).
       
SR     Semiregular variables, which are giants or supergiants of intermediate
       and late spectral types showing noticeable periodicity in their
       light changes, accompanied or sometimes interrupted by various
       irregularities. Periods lie in the range from 20 to >2000 days,
       while the shapes of the light curves are rather different and
       variable, and the amplitudes may be from several hundredths to
       several magnitudes (usually 1-2 mag in V).

SRA    Semiregular late-type (M, C, S or Me, Ce, Se) giants displaying
       persistent periodicity and usually small (<2.5 mag in V) light
       amplitudes (Z Aqr). Amplitudes and light-curve shapes generally
       vary and periods are in the range of 35-1200 days. Many of these
       stars differ from Miras only by showing smaller light amplitudes;

SRB    Semiregular late-type (M, C, S or Me, Ce, Se) giants with poorly
       defined periodicity (mean cycles in the range of 20 to 2300 days)
       or with  alternating intervals of periodic and slow irregular changes,
       and even with light constancy intervals (RR CrB, AF Cyg). Every star
       of this type may usually be assigned a certain mean period
       (cycle), which is the value given in the Catalogue. In a number
       of cases, the simultaneous presence of two or more periods of
       light variation is observed;

SRC    Semiregular late-type (M, C, S or Me, Ce, Se) supergiants (Mu Cep) with
       amplitudes of about 1 mag and periods of light variation from 30 days to
       several thousand days;

SRD    Semiregular variable giants and supergiants of F, G, or K spectral
       types, sometimes with emission lines in their spectra. Amplitudes
       of light variation are in the range from 0.1 to 4 mag, and the range of
       periods is from 30 to 1100 days (SX Her, SV UMa).       
       
                           
                           3. Rotating Variable Stars

       Variable stars with nonuniform surface brightness and/or
       ellipsoidal shapes, whose variability is caused by axial rotation
       with respect to the observer. The nonuniformity of surface
       brightness distributions may be caused by the presence of spots or
       by some thermal or chemical inhomogeneity of the atmosphere caused
       by a magnetic field whose axis is not coincident with the rotation
       axis. These stars are subdivided into the following types:

ACV    Alpha2 Canum Venaticorum variables. These are main-sequence stars
       with spectral types B8p-A7p and displaying strong magnetic fields.
       Spectra show abnormally strong lines of Si, Sr, Cr, and rare
       earths whose intensities vary with rotation. They exhibit magnetic
       field and brightness changes (periods of 0.5-160 days or more). The
       amplitudes of the brightness changes are usually withine 0.01-0.1 mag
       in V.
       

               4. Cataclysmic (Explosive and Novalike) Variables

       These are variable stars showing outbursts caused by thermonuclear
       burst processes in their surface layers (novae) or deep in their
       interiors (supernovae). We use the term "novalike" for
       variables that show novalike outbursts caused by rapid energy
       release in the surrounding space (UG-type stars - see
       below) and also for objects not displaying outbursts but
       resembling explosive variables at minimum light by their spectral
       (or other) characteristics. The majority of explosive and
       novalike variables are close binary systems, their components
       having strong mutual influence on the evolution of each star. It
       is often observed that the hot dwarf component of the system is
       surrounded by an accretion disk formed by matter lost by the
       other, cooler, and more extended component. This category is
       subdivided into the following types:

NR     Recurrent novae, which differ from typical novae by the fact that two
       or more outbursts (instead of a single one) separated by 10-80
       years have been observed (T CrB).

ZAND   Symbiotic variables of the Z Andromedae type. They are close
       binaries consisting of a hot star, a star of late type, and an
       extended envelope excited by the hot star's radiation. The
       combined brightness displays irregular variations with amplitudes
       up to 4 mag in V. A very inhomogeneous group of objects.


                       5. Close Binary Eclipsing Systems 

       We adopt a triple system of classifying eclipsing binary systems:
       according to the shape of the combined light curve, as well as to
       physical and evolutionary characteristics of their components.
       The classification based on light curves is simple, traditional,
       and suits the observers; the second and third classification
       methods take into account positions of the binary-system
       components in the (MV ,B-V) diagram and the degree of inner Roche
       lobe filling. Estimates are made by applying the simple criteria
       proposed by Svechnikov and Istomin (1979). The symbols for the
       types of eclipsing binary systems that we use are given below.

            a) Classification based on the shape of the light curve

EA     Algol (Beta Persei)-type eclipsing systems. Binaries with spherical
       or slightly ellipsoidal components. It is possible to specify, for
       their light curves, the moments of the beginning and end of the
       eclipses. Between eclipses the light remains almost constant or
       varies insignificantly because of reflection effects, slight
       ellipsoidality of components, or physical variations. Secondary
       minima may be absent. An extremely wide range of periods is
       observed, from 0.2 to >= 10000 days. Light amplitudes are also
       quite different and may reach several magnitudes.

EB     Beta Lyrae-type eclipsing systems. These are eclipsing systems having
       ellipsoidal components and light curves for which it is impossible
       to specify the exact times of onset and end of eclipses because of
       a continuous change of a system's apparent combined brightness
       between eclipses; secondary minimum is observed in all cases, its
       depth usually being considerably smaller than that of the primary
       minimum; periods are mainly longer than 1 day. The components
       generally belong to early spectral types (B-A). Light amplitudes
       are usually <2 mag in V.

EW     W Ursae Majoris-type eclipsing variables. These are eclipsers with
       periods shorter than 1 days, consisting of ellipsoidal components
       almost in contact and having light curves for which it is
       impossible to specify the exact times of onset and end of
       eclipses. The depths of the primary and secondary minima are
       almost equal or differ insignificantly. Light amplitudes are
       usually <0.8 mag in V. The components generally belong to
       spectral types F-G and later.
       
        b) Classification according to the components' physical
                                characteristics

GS     Systems with one or both giant and supergiant components; one of the
       components may be a main sequence star.

        c) Classification based on the degree of filling of inner Roche
                                     lobes
DM     Detached main-sequence systems. Both components are main-sequence
       stars and do not fill their inner Roche lobes.

KE     Contact systems of early (O-A) spectral type, both components being
       close in size to their inner critical surfaces.

SD     Semidetached systems in which the surface of the less massive com-
       ponent is close to its inner Roche lobe.
       
       The combination of the above three classification systems for
       eclipsers results in the assignment of multiple classifications
       for object types. These are separated by a solidus ("/") in the
       data field. Examples are:  E/DM, EA/DS/RS, EB/WR, EW/KW, etc.       
       

         6. Optically Variable Close Binary Sources of Strong, Variable
                        X-ray Radiation (X-ray Sources)
                        
XP     X-ray pulsar systems. The primary component is usually an ellipsoidal
       early-type supergiant. The reflection effect is very small and
       light variability is mainly caused by the ellipsoidal primary
       component's rotation. Periods of light changes are between 1 and
       10 days; the period of the pulsar in the system is from 1 s to 100
       min. Light amplitudes usually do not exceed several tenths of a
       magnitude (Vela X-1 = GP Vel);                               

Използвана литература.

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Karkoschka E., The Observer's Sky Atlas, "Springer" 2007

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